Kenya Multisite Integrated Surveillance of COVID-19 and Other Pathogens, KEMIS I
Reliable, representative, and timely SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimates continue to be important for mapping the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kenya, and informing disease control strategies. Including vaccination programs. Serial seroprevalence estimates in general population samples help to inform changes in SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence over time and changes in population immunity. Serial sero-surveys can also help identify gaps in population immunity within specific populations to inform targeted interventions, such as targeted vaccination campaigns. Furthermore, they can inform the contribution of vaccination
to population immunity and can be leveraged, within population cohorts, to evaluate the duration of immunity conferred from either natural infection or vaccination.
This is the first complete version.
Nairobi urban health and demographic surveillance system
Unit of Analysis
Blood samples from individual residents randomly selected from all ages in Korogocho and Viwandani.
The study was conducted in two informal settlements (Korogocho and Viwandani) located on the outskirts of Nairobi City. APHRC has been running a health and demographic surveillance system since 2002 covering a total population of about 100,000 individuals whose status are regularly updated by the NUHDSS research team. The informal settlements are part of the many such settlements in Nairobi city characterized by poor housing, overcrowding, underemployment, and poverty and limited access to social amenities including health services. This study was conducted on a randomly selected population of 850 adults and children living in the two settlements. Similar studies were conducted in Kilifi, Kisumu, Siaya and Kibera.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Dr. Abdhalah Ziraba
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Community administration Korogocho and Viwandani
study participants recruitment
This study was conducted on a randomly selected population of 850 adults and children living within the health and demographic surveillance system area (HDSS) run by APHRC. We used the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) database as the sampling frame. We collected a single blood sample from each participant (5ml from adults and 2ml from
children) and analysed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
round 2, following SEECK
Mode of data collection
The data was collected by a team of 11 field staff - including 9 field interviewers, 1 supervisor and 1 lab Tech. This team was coordinated by a reseach officer. Overal oversight for the project was provided by the PI.
The Field interviewers were divided into mobilizers (who conducted consenting at household level) and interviewers who conducted interviews at the site office. Lab activities were conducted by the Lab Tech.
Type of Research Instrument
The study used a participants' questionnaire (SARS COV-2 Sero-survey - Questionnaire) to collect information from the participants. The questionnaire was developed in English, and translated to swahili.
Information captured in the questionnaire included:
Sociodemographic information: Participants name, ethnicity, education, religion, age, gender, place of residence.
Health information: Access to prevention services, risk of exposure to COVID 19, outmigration and inmigration information, vaccination status of children participants, laboratory information including blood sample collection and blood grouping.
Data collection was conducted electronically. Participants were assigned unique numbers which were used to label blood samples.
There was no data entry because the study questionnaire was uploaded to an online platform. Discrepancies realized in the generated database were resolved through concensus in data review meetings. Consultations were made with the PI and the larger KEMRI team on a needs basis.
The blood Samples were centrifuged and serum separated onsite, stored at -80°C at the main office for transportation to the Kilifi Wellcome Trust Research Program (KWTRP) laboratories for COVID-19 IgM and IgG antibody analysis.
Estimates of Sampling Error
For each HDSS location, the population register was used to select a random sample of residents across all age groups targeting 850 persons in an age-stratified sample as 50 in each 5-year age band between 15-64 years and above and 100 in 5-year band from 0-14 years. This target sample size wouldl yield 300 participants <15 years which would be enough to estimate 1% seroprevalence with a 2% margin of error. It would also give 500 participants in the 15-64-year-age group which would be enough to estimate a seroprevalence of 3-5% with <5% error margin.
African Population and Health Research Center
APHRC data access condition
All non-APHRC staff seeking to use data generated at the Center must obtain written approval to use the data from the Director of Research.
This form is developed to assess applications for data use and facilitate responsible sharing of data with external partners/collaborators/researchers. By entering into this agreement, the undersigned agrees to use these data only for the purpose for which they were obtained and to abide by the conditions outlined below:
The data remain the property of APHRC; any unauthorized reproduction and sharing of the data is strictly prohibited. The user will, therefore, not release nor permit others to use or release the data to any other person without the written authorization from the Center.
The provided data must be used for the purpose specified in the Data Request Form; any other use not specified in the form must receive additional or separate authorization.
The Center is committed to protecting the identity of the respondents who provide information in its research. All analytical data sets (both qualitative and quantitative) released by the Data Unit MUST are stripped of respondent identifiers to protect the identity of the respondents. By accepting to use APHRC data, the user is pledging that he/she will not, under any circumstance, regenerate the identifiers or permit others to use the data to learn the identity of any individual, household or community included in any data set.
The user will not use nor permit others to use the data to report any information in the data sets that could identify, directly or by inference, individuals or households.
5.Reporting of errors or inconsistencies:
The user will promptly notify the Head of the Statistics and Survey Unit any errors discovered in the data as soon as the errors are discovered.
6.Publications resulting from APHRC data:
The Center requires external collaborators to work with APHRC staff on all publications resulting from its data. In order to facilitate this, lead authors should send a detailed concept note of the paper (including the background, rationale, data, analytical methods, and preliminary findings) to the Principle Investigator (or Theme Leader) for the project (with a copy to the Director of Research), who will circulate the abstract to concerned researchers for possible expression of interest in participating in the publication as co-authors. Any exception to the involvement of APHRC staff should be approved by the Director of Research, APHRC.
The user will take responsibility for the security of the data by ensuring that the data are used and stored in a secure environment where access is password protected. This will ensure that non-authorized people should not have access to the data.
8.Loss of privilege to use data:
In the event that APHRC determines that the data user is in violation of the conditions for using the data, or if the user wishes to cancel this agreement, the user will destroy the data files provided to him/her. APHRC retains the right to revoke this agreement or informs publishers to withhold publication of any work based wholly or in part on its data if the conditions for using the data are violated.
Any work/reports from this data must acknowledge APHRC as the source of these data. For example, the suggested acknowledgement for NUHDSS data is:
"This research uses livelihoods data collected under the longitudinal Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) since 2006. The NUHDSS is carried out by the African Population and Health Research Center in two slums settlements (Korogocho and Viwandani) in Nairobi City."Additionally all funders, the study communities that provided the data, and staff who collected and analyzed or processed the data should be acknowledged.
10.Deposit of Reports/Papers:
The user should submit electronic and paper copies of all publications generated using APHRC data to the Policy Engagement and Communications Department, with copies to the Director of Research.
11.Change of contact details:
The user will promptly inform the Director of Research of any change in your personal details as contained on this data request form.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.