Kenya Multisite Integrated Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other Pathogens, KEMIS II
The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes the relevance of ongoing surveillance in order to achieve global objectives of ending the COVID-19 crisis and its impact. Surveillance plays a crucial role in understanding the pandemic's progression, identifying risk factors for severe illness, and assessing the effects of vaccination and other public health measures. Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS) have provided insights into the extent of cumulative infections in Kenya's general population. Previous surveys showed that SARS-CoV-2 infections were widespread in the general population, but with some regional variations. This report presents findings from the third serosurvey conducted between September and December 2022 among residents of two informal settlements in Nairobi - Korogocho and Viwandani - using the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) run by APHRC as the sampling frame from which a random sample of participants is drawn. Similar surveys were also carried out in Kisumu, Kilifi, Siaya, and Kibera in Nairobi.
This is the first complete version.
Unit of Analysis
This study analyzed data from blood samples from individual respondents who are residents of Korogocho and Viwandani.
The survey covered all the NUHDSS household members (usual residents) from Nairobi (Korogocho and Viwandani).
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Dr. Abdhalah Ziraba
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
KEMRI Wellcome Trust- Kilifi team
Korogocho and Viwandani administration
Sensitization and community mobilization
Community Koch FM and Reuben FM
Sensitization and community mobilization
Residents of Korogocho and Viwandani
Community field team
This study was conducted on a randomly selected population of 850 adults and children living within the health and demographic surveillance system area (HDSS) run by APHRC. We used the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) database as the sampling frame. We collected a single blood sample from each participant (5ml from adults and 2ml from children) and analysed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
Deviations from the Sample Design
There were no deviations from the sample design.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
The data was collected by a team of 12 field staff - including 9 field interviewers, 1 coordinator and 2 lab Techs. This team was coordinated by a reseach officer. Overal oversight for the project was provided by the PI. The Field interviewers were divided into mobilizers (who conducted consenting at household level) and interviewers who conducted interviews at the site office. Lab activities were conducted by the Lab Technologists.
Type of Research Instrument
The study used a participants' questionnaire (SARS COV-2 Sero-survey - Questionnaire) to collect information from the participants. The questionnaire was developed in English, and translated to swahili. Information captured in the questionnaire included:
Sociodemographic information: Participants name, education, religion, age, gender, place of residence.
Health information: Access to prevention services, risk of exposure to COVID 19, outmigration and inmigration information, vaccination status of children participants, COVID-19 vaccination, laboratory information including blood sample collection and blood grouping. Data collection was conducted electronicallay. Participants were assigned unique numbers which were used to label blood samples.
There was no data entry because the study questionnaire was uploaded to an online platform. Discrepancies realized in the generated database were resolved through concensus in data review meetings. Consultations were made with the PI and the larger KEMRI team on a needs basis.
The blood Samples were centrifuged and serum separated onsite, stored at -80°C at the main lab for later shipment to the Kilifi Wellcome Trust Research Program (KWTRP) laboratories for COVID-19 IgM and IgG antibody analysis.
Estimates of Sampling Error
For each HDSS location, the population register was used to select a random sample of residents across all age groups targeting 850 persons in an age-stratified sample of 50 in each 5-year age band between 15-64 years and above and 100 in 5-year band from 0-14 years. This target sample size wouldl yield 300 participants <15 years which would be enough to estimate 1% seroprevalence with a 2% margin of error. It would also give 550 participants in the 15-64-year-age group which would be enough to estimate a seroprevalence of 3-5% with <5% error margin.
African Population and Health Research Center
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