UNDERSTANDING THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF PREGNANT AND PARENTING ADOLESCENTS IN BURKINA FASO, MALAWI AND KENYA
Pregnant and parenting adolescents (PPAs) in African countries face unique challenges that impact their well-being and life opportunities. Limited research exists on their lived experiences, including the impact of pregnancy on education and their overall well-being. Our studies aimed to document the lived experiences of PPAs, including the impact of pregnancy on their education, health, and aspirations.
We used mixed-methods cross-sectional approaches to conduct the studies in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Malawi. Data were collected from a total of 980, 594, and 669 PPAs in Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Malawi, respectively. These data are crucial for informing policy changes and interventions to better support pregnant and parenting adolescents. The data can also help shed light on the challenges faced by PPAs and the potential ways to improve their well-being and opportunities.
Data from these studies can be used by various stakeholders, including government ministries, researchers, advocacy groups, and communities.
Burkina Faso and Malawi datasets contain Covid-19-related data, whereas, the Kenya dataset lacks data on Covid-19.
Regional coverage i.e., West, East, and Southern Africa
Unit of Analysis
Adolescents aged 10 to 19 years resident in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Malawi
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Ajayi Idowu Anthony
African Populattion and Health Research Center (APHRC)
Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP), Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo
Centre for Social Research (CSR), University of Malawi
Caroline W. Kabiru
Senior Research Scientist
Emmanuel Oloche Otukpa
Miss Koch Kenya
CSR, University of Malawi
CSR, University of Malawi
ISSP, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agecy
Miss Koch Kenya
Directorate of Children services
University of Malawi
Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo
In Kenya, we estimated that a sample size of 500 pregnant and parenting adolescent girls was needed to answer the study objectives. Participants were selected consecutively following a household listing to identify households with PPAs in all Korogocho villages. Pregnant and parenting adolescents in each household and in all nine Korogocho villages were recruited consecutively until a sample size of 594 was reached.
In Malawi and Burkina Faso, we estimated a sample size of 1190 and 1077 pregnant and parenting adolescents was required, respectively. We used a two-stage cluster random sampling to select study participants. In the first stage, we randomly selected 60 self-weighted implicitly stratified clusters (PSU) or Enumeration Areas (EAs) from the Primary Sampling Frame (PSF) developed by Malawi National Statistical Office and Burkina Faso National Statistical Office. In the second stage, we conducted a household listing in the selected rural and urban clusters and census blocks and randomly selected households using a systematic random sampling procedure to draw 20 households per cluster. One adolescent was selected in each household sampled using the Kish grid to be interviewed. The Kish grid procedure used a pre-assigned table of random numbers to find the person to be interviewed in a household where there is more than one eligible respondent. We arrived at a sample size of 669 and 980 PPAs in Malawi and Burkina Faso, respectively.
Across the 3 countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya and Malawi) purposive sampling approach was employed in respondents for the in-depth (IDIs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). We conducted IDIs with pregnant and parenting adolescents, adolescent fathers, parents/guardians, while KIIs were conducted with teachers, health providers, community/religious leaders, policymakers and civil society organizations. The pregnant and parenting adolescent girls who took part in the IDIs were excluded from the survey. In Kenya, parenting adolescent boys were identified through a local non-governmental organization based in Korogocho that implements interventions targeting young people. Overall, we conducted 49, 44, 42 IDIs and 35, 13, 20 KIIs in Burkina Faso, Malawi, Kenya, respectively. The interviews were sufficient to generate rich data on the perspectives of the community on issues affecting pregnanat and parenting adolescents as well as possible ways of addressing them. The breakdown of the qualitative interview respondents across the 3 countries is presented below:
Burkina Faso (84): IDIs with 24 pregnant and parenting adolescent girls (10 - 19 years), 8 parenting boys (10 - 19 years) and 17 parents/guardians
KIIs with 18 teachers/principals/directors/district managers/PTA association representatives, 3 policymakers, and 14 religious/community leaders
Kenya (62): IDIs with 22 pregnant and parenting adolescent girls (10 - 19 years), 10 parenting boys (10 - 19 years) and 10 parents/guardians
KIIs with 4 teachers/principals/directors/district managers/PTA association representatives, 3 policymakers, 7 religious/community leaders, 2 NGO/CBO repsentatives and 4 health workers
Malawi (57): IDIs with 18 pregnant and parenting adolescent girls (10 - 19 years), 10 parenting boys (10 - 19 years) and 16 parents/guardians
KIIs with 4 teachers/principals/directors/district managers/PTA association representatives, 3 policymakers, and 6 NGO/CBO representatives
Mode of data collection
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [CAPI]
Qualified and well -trained research assistants (RA) administered questionnaires to PPAs.
All research assistants were organized into teams that had a team leader.
Team leaders ensured that the research assistants adhered to research ethics and collected data in the designated enumeration areas according to schedule, and submitted the collected data.
The co-investigators conducted regular spot checks at least thrice a week.
Type of Research Instrument
The questionnaire for the studies was adapted from the Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) toolkit, John Cleland's illustrative questionnaire for interview surveys with young people, the Adolescent Girls Initiative-Kenya survey, the Transitions to Adulthood questionnaire, and the Protecting the Next Generation questionnaire. It was structured with an individual questionnaire.
An individual questionnaire was administered to the adolescent after consent was acquired. It collected information on Background characteristics, family characteristics, social capital and networks, self-reported health, marriage and sexual behavior, reproductive health knowledge and contraception, pregnancy and births, childcare, reactions to pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and other STIs, GBV/Domestic Violence and other forms of abuse, alcohol and substance abuse, satisfaction with care, concerns, aspirations, and expectations or perceived life chances, disability, and an additional COVID-19 section for surveys in Burkina Faso and Malawi.
The questionnaires were developed in English for Kenya and Malawi. In Burkina Faso the questionnaires were translated from English to French.
All questionnaires are provided as external resources.
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) Structure checking and completeness
c) Secondary editing
d) Structural checking of STATA data files
For Malawi and Burkina Faso, quantitative data were collected electronically on android tablets or phones using SurveyCTO, a survey platform for electronic data-collection based on the Open Data Kit (ODK). All devices were password-protected, and data collected was synchronized daily to a secured server at the end of every day. The devices were configured so that, in addition to the servers at CSR and ISSP, the data were also sent through Dropbox, and APHRC received the data in real-time.
Kenya’s quantitative data were also collected through SurveyCTO software installed on Android tablets that were configured to ensure APHRC could receive the data. All devices were password-protected, and data collected were synchronized daily to a secured server at the end of every day.
Data checks were inbuilt to ensure that only complete data were synchronized to the survey.
African Population and Health Research Center
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.