UPHD - Survey on Social, Health and Overall wellbeing of older people (50+ years)
The Aging Survey is part of the 5 themes of the Urbanization, Poverty and Health Dynamics I (UPHD I) Project in Sub-Saharan Africa. The UPHD I project was designed and implement by APHRC.
The study on the migration, poverty and the wellbeing of older people is a longitudinal research project following up older people living in two slums of Nairobi, Kenya. The project is a partnership between University of Southampton, UK and the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC) located in Nairobi, Kenya. The overall aim of the study is to investigate the living arrangements and well-being of older people living in informal settlements and how these differ by migration status and socioeconomic circumstances.
Although the overall aim of the study (UPHD I) was to investigate the living arrangements and well-being of older people living in informal settlements and how these differ by migration status and socioeconomic circumstances.
The specific objectives were to study:
1.1 The poverty status, economic activity, demographic profile, living arrangements, and social support networks of older people;
1.2 Understand the determinants of health and health-seeking behaviour among the older people;
1.3 Examine the migration histories, migration intentions and linkages with place of origin of older urban slum dwellers;
1.4 and to understand patterns of care and support in later life and how this is affected by increased mortality of economically active adults.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v1.0: Edited, anonymous dataset for Data Documentation Working Group
Version 1.1, November 2014. Anonymized with DOI and Recommended Citation added.
Two informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani, in Nairobi City (the capital city) of Kenya.
Unit of Analysis
The unit of analysis is the individual
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), aged 50 years and above in the household
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
African Population & Health Research Center
Eliya Zulu, PhD
Nyovani Madise, PhD
Alex Ezeh, PhD
John Cleland, PhD
Jane Falkingham, PhD
Jean-Christophe Fotso, PhD
Zewdu Woubalem, PhD
Residents of Korogocho and Viwandani Slums
Two cohorts of older people were recruited. The first cohort was recruited between October 2006 - February 2007 and the second cohort recruited in October -December 2007. Older people 50 years and older who were resident members of the HDSS at the time of the recruitment formed the sampling frame for the study. At the first recruitment (Cohort 1), 2,612 older people were resident in the demographic surveillance area. The second recruitment targeted older people who in-migrated (123) into the surveillance area between the January - September 2007, those who turned 50 years (242) as well as older people who were present in the first recruitment (392) but who contact could not be established. The sampling frame for the baseline was therefore a total of 2,972 older people.
Deviations from the Sample Design
All DSS Residents aged 50 years and above living in the study area qualify to respond to this questionnaire. No samples were drawn.
The overall survey response was 100 percent. With varying percentages on Individual questions. Omissions occured on individual questions due to refusal to answer, and use of proxy respondents.
Sample weights were not used.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Interviewing teams in the two sites of study comprised of:
- Korogocho: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 2 data quality control officers, 12 interviewers
- Viwandani: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 3 data quality control officers, 17 interviewers
The roles of the various members of the interviewing teams were:
- Interviewer: Conducting face-to-face paper-based interviews in assigned zone within the study site
- Data Quality Control Officer: Performing random spot-checks on 10% of the questionnaires and reporting inconsistencies to the Data Quality Control Team Leader for harmonization
- Data Quality Control Team Leader: Harmonizing inconsistencies within questionnaires and performing a random spot-check on 10% of the 10% questionnaires that have already undergone spot-checking
- Editting Team Leader: Editting 100% of questionnaires from randomly selected field workers and documenting issues emerging during data collection
- Field supervisor: Responsible for overseeing general operations, resolving issues that cannot be harmonized by data quality control and ensuring that field work progressed on schedule. They also
conducted sit-in interviews along with Data Quality Control Team Leader
The Field Co-ordinator, Research Officer and/or Project Managers visited the field and field teams regularly to monitor and review progress and support field operations.
African Population & Health Research Center
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) During data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
e) Structural checking of SPSS data files
Detailed documentation of the editing of data can be found in the "Standard Procedures Manual" document provided as an external resource.
Some corrections are made automatically by the program (80%) and the rest by visual control of the questionnaire (20%).
Where changes are made by the program, a cold deck imputation is preferred; where incorrect values are imputed using existing data from another dataset. If cold deck is found to be insufficient, hot deck imputation is used. In this case, a missing value is imputed from a randomly selected similar record in the same dataset.
Data entry was performed manually at APHRC's headquarters on desktop computers and was done using an in-house built system with a Visual Basic.Net front-end and a Microsoft SQL Server back-end. Double data entry was carried out on 10% of the questionnaires.
Data were processed in clusters, with each cluster being processed as a complete unit through each stage of data processing. Each cluster goes through the following steps:
1) Questionnaire reception
2) Office editing and coding
3) Data entry
4) Structure and completeness checking
5) Verification entry
6) Comparison of verification data
7) Back up of raw data
8) Secondary editing
9) Edited data back up
After all clusters are processed, all data is concatenated together and then the following steps are completed for all data files:
10) Export to STATA 10 in 2 files (migration & employment history, migration & employment calendar)
11) Recoding of variables needed for analysis
13) Structural checking of STATA 10 files
14) Data quality tabulations
15) Production of analysis tabulations
Details of each of these steps can be found in the Standard Procedures Manual.
Estimates of Sampling Error
No estimation of sampling error was done.
African Population & Health Research Center
Details are included in the document: Data Use Agreement Guidelines for Internal/External Users (External Resources)
All non-APHRC staff seeking to use data generated at the Center must obtain written approval to use the data from the Director of Research. This form is developed to assess applications for data use and facilitate responsible sharing of data with external partners/collaborators/researchers. By entering into this agreement, the undersigned agrees to use these data only for the purpose for which they were obtained and to abide by the conditions outlined below:
1. Data Ownership: The data remain the property of APHRC; any unauthorized reproduction and sharing of the data is strictly prohibited. The user will, therefore, not release nor permit others to use or release the data to any other person without the written authorization from the Center.
2. Purpose: The provided data must be used for the purpose specified in the Data Request Form; any other use not specified in the form must receive additional or separate authorization.
3. Respondent Identifiers: The Center is committed to protecting the identity of the respondents who provide information in its research. All analytical data sets (both qualitative and quantitative) released by the Data Unit MUST are stripped of respondent identifiers to protect the identity of the respondents. By accepting to use APHRC data, the user is pledging that he/she will not, under any circumstance, regenerate the identifiers or permit others to use the data to learn the identity of any individual, household or community included in any data set.
4. Confidentiality pledge: The user will not use nor permit others to use the data to report any information in the data sets that could identify, directly or by inference, individuals or households.
5. Reporting of errors or inconsistencies: The user will promptly notify the Head of the Statistics and Survey Unit any errors discovered in the data as soon as the errors are discovered.
6. Publications resulting from APHRC data: The Center requires external collaborators to work with APHRC staff on all publications resulting from its data. In order to facilitate this, lead authors should send a detailed concept note of the paper (including the background, rationale, data, analytical methods, and preliminary findings) to the Principle Investigator (or Theme Leader) for the project (with a copy to the Director of Research), who will circulate the abstract to concerned researchers for possible expression of interest in participating in the publication as co-authors. Any exception to the involvement of APHRC staff should be approved by the Director of Research, APHRC.
7. Security: The user will take responsibility for the security of the data by ensuring that the data are used and stored in a secure environment where access is password protected. This will ensure that non-authorized people should not have access to the data.
8. Loss of privilege to use data: In the event that APHRC determines that the data user is in violation of the conditions for using the data, or if the user wishes to cancel this agreement, the user will destroy the data files provided to him/her. APHRC retains the right to revoke this agreement or informs publishers to withhold publication of any work based wholly or in part on its data if the conditions for using the data are violated.
9. Acknowledgement: Any work/reports from this data must acknowledge APHRC as the source of these data. For example, the suggested acknowledgement for NUHDSS data is:
“This research uses livelihoods data collected under the longitudinal Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) since 2006. The NUHDSS is carried out by the African Population and Health Research Center in two slums settlements (Korogocho and Viwandani) in Nairobi City.”
Additionally all funders, the study communities that provided the data, and staff who collected and analyzed or processed the data should be acknowledged.
10. Deposit of Reports/Papers: The user should submit electronic and paper copies of all publications generated using APHRC data to the Policy Engagement and Communications Department, with copies to the Director of Research.
11. Change of contact details: The user will promptly inform the Director of Research of any change in your personal details as contained on this data request form.
African Population and Health Research Center, Urbanization, Poverty and Health Dynamics - Aging Survey, January 2011. APHRC, Nairobi - Kenya. doi:11239/176-2006-010-1.1
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that APHRC and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
(c) 2011, African Population & Health Research Center (APHRC)