UPHD - Detailed Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2007
This theme investigated the linkages between migration, poverty, and health consequences at each stage of the life-course among people living in Nairobi's informal settlements. It specifically addressed objective 1.4 of the UPHD project as stated below:
1.1 Determine the characteristics of in- and out-migrants, their migration histories, reasons for migrating, and nature of links with origin communities;
1.2 Investigate how changing poverty and health circumstances influence and are influenced by intra-urban and urban-rural migrations;
1.3 Assess the motivations for migration (e.g. health-related reasons) and how this has an influence on estimates of mortality and fertility levels in informal settlements;
1.4 Validate the relevance of various measures of poverty in informal urban settlements.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
v1.0: Edited, anonymous dataset for Data Documentation Working Group
Version 1.1, November 2014. Anonymized with DOI and Recommended Citation added.
Two informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani, in Nairobi City (the capital city) of Kenya.
Unit of Analysis
The unit of analysis is the household
The survey was done on a sample of 900 households from UPHD super Sample Households
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
African Population & Health Research Center
Eliya Zulu, PhD
Nyovani Madise, PhD
Alex Ezeh, PhD
John Cleland, PhD
Jane Falkingham, PhD
Jean-Christophe Fotso, PhD
Zewdu Woubalem, PhD
Residents of Korogocho and Viwandani Slums
A simple random sample of 900 households were included into the study, 450 households from each site (Korogicho and Viwandani). The sampling frame was a super sample from the DSS households sampled for the UPHD I program.
Out of 900 Households sampled, we had 662 successful interviews, 147 refusal and 91 interviews status unknown. This is a 73.5% (662/900) response rate
Sample weights were not used
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Interviewing teams in the two sites of study comprised of:
- Korogocho: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 2 data quality control officers, 12 interviewers
- Viwandani: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 3 data quality control officers, 17 interviewers
The roles of the various members of the interviewing teams were:
- Interviewer: Conducting face-to-face paper-based interviews in assigned zone within the study site
- Data Quality Control Officer: Performing random spot-checks on 10% of the questionnaires and reporting inconsistencies to the Data Quality Control Team Leader for harmonization
- Data Quality Control Team Leader: Harmonizing inconsistencies within questionnaires and performing a random spot-check on 10% of the 10% questionnaires that have already undergone spot-checking
- Editting Team Leader: Editting 100% of questionnaires from randomly selected field workers and documenting issues emerging during data collection
- Field supervisor: Responsible for overseeing general operations, resolving issues that cannot be harmonized by data quality control and ensuring that field work progressed on schedule. They also
conducted sit-in interviews along with Data Quality Control Team Leader
The Field Co-ordinator, Research Officer and/or Project Managers visited the field and field teams regularly to monitor and review progress and support field operations.
Type of Research Instrument
The questionnaire used was one structured questionnaire named Detailed Household Income and Expenditure Form, The questionnaires were developed in English and were translated into Kiswahili. The questionnaire included the Following Sections:
- HOUSEHOLDS: Background characteristics, Respondents' characteristics, Household information, Linkages with Origin Community,Other Assets and Income, Weekly Food Expenditure, Monthly Non-Food Expenditure, Annual Non-Food Expenditure, Inventory of Consumer Durable Goods, Subjective Poverty and Food Security
-INDIVIDUAL HOUSEHOLD MEMBERs: Background characteristics, Respondents' characteristics, Economic Activities, Salaried and Wage Employment, Self Employment, Transfers and Social Assistance, Medical Expenses and Educational Expenses.
African Population & Health Research Center
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) During data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
Detailed documentation of the editing of data can be found in the "Standard Procedures Manual" document provided as an external resource.
Some corrections are made automatically by the program (80%) and the rest by visual control of the questionnaire (20%).
Data entry was performed manually at APHRC's headquarters on desktop computers and was done using an in-house built system with a Microsoft Access Program.
Data were processed the following steps:
1) Questionnaire reception
2) Office editing and coding
3) Data entry
4) Structure and completeness checking
7) Back up of raw data
8) Export to STATA 10 in 12 files
9) Recoding of variables needed for analysis
10) Structural checking of STATA 12 files
11) Data quality tabulations
12) Production of analysis tabulations
Estimates of Sampling Error
No estimation of sampling error was done.
African Population & Health Research Center
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“This research uses livelihoods data collected under the longitudinal Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) since 2006. The NUHDSS is carried out by the African Population and Health Research Center in two slums settlements (Korogocho and Viwandani) in Nairobi City.”
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African Population and Health Research Center, Urbanization, Poverty and Health Dynamics - Detailed Household Income and Expenditure Survey, June 2011. APHRC, Nairobi - Kenya. doi:11239/176-2007-012-1.1
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