The Transition To Adulthood (TTA) study is part of a larger project on Urbanization, Poverty and Health Dynamics, that is funded by the Wellcome Trust. The TTA study investigated the inter-linkages between migration, socio-economic status, schooling and initiation of sex; risky behavior (including multiple sexual partnerships, alcohol and drug abuse), and transition to adulthood among the urban poor through a longitudinal set-up The study identified protective and risk factors in the lives of adolescents (aged 12-24 years) growing up in Nairobi's informal settlements and examined how these factors influence adolescents' transition to adulthood. The specific aims of the study were to: a) Identify sexual and reproductive health; livelihood, education and other key concerns and aspirations these young people have as they grow up in urban informal settlements; b) Determine both protective and risk factors that influence adolescents' transition to secondary school, employment, independent housing, sexual and marital partnerships, parenthood as well as the sequencing of these transitions; and c) Investigate the implications of childbearing aspirations for HIV/STI prevention and vice versa, with a particular focus on dual-protection strategies.
The TTA survey was nested in the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS), a longitudinal platform set in 2002 by APHRC to collect and monitor health and demographic data from residents living in the Korogocho and Viwandani slums. The quantitative component of the study commenced in 2007, with 4058 young people between the ages of 12 and 24 interviewed as part of Wave 1 from November 2007 through June 2008. In 2009 and 2010, respondents were re-interviewed in two additional waves (2,674 interviewed in Wave 2 and 1,923 interviewed in Wave 3). During the second and third waves of data collection, attempts were also made to include adolescents who were not traced in the earlier waves. The qualitative component of the study comprised 75 in-depth interviews conducted in November-December 2009 with youth aged 12-24 years in the two slums.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Version 1.1, November 2014. Anonymized with DOI and Recommended Citation added.
Two informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani, in Nairobi City (the capital city) of Kenya.
Unit of Analysis
The survey covered household adolescents aged 12-24 years
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
African Population and Health Research Center
Eliya Zulu, PhD
Nyovani Madise, PhD
Alex Ezeh, PhD
John Cleland, PhD
Jane Falkingham, PhD
Jean-Christophe Fotso, PhD
Residents of Korogocho and Viwandani Slums
Routine 2007 NUHDSS data were used to randomly select individuals within the households in the study settings. A target sub-sample size (754) was derived using a priori estimates of the proportion of virgin adolescents by age 16. Migration status was also considered to cater for biases from adolescents who grew up in the slums as opposed to those who migrated into the slums. Given the 3-year follow-up and considering an annual attrition rate of 16% in Korogocho and 24% in Viwandani and assuming a 5% level of non response (due to absence, refusal, incapacity, etc.), a sample of 6213 adolescents (2819 in Korogocho and 3394 in Viwandani) was needed to ensure a final sample of 754 individuals per unit of interest (e.g. 12-21 year-old male adolescents in Korogocho). During the first wave (November 2007 - June 2008), 4057 randomly selected adolescents (50% males) aged 12-21 were interviewed at home. This number reflects a 75% response rate of the targeted sample (6124), with respondents in Korogocho being more likely to complete interviews than their counterparts in Viwandani (80% vs. 71%). In Wave 2 62.3% (2,527) of those interviewed in Wave 1 were re-interviewed. An additional 145 respondents were interviewed for the first time in Wave 2.
In-depth interview respondents were purposively selected from participants in the baseline survey conducted in 2007-8 (youn people aged 12-24 years in the two slums). Respondents were selected to represent varying trajectories of experience with regards to the key markers of the transition from adolescence to adulthood.
Deviations from the Sample Design
4058 interviewed and 5506 targeted (Response rate=74%)
Individual weights were computed as the inverse probability predicted from a logistic regression for non-reponse at each wave. The weight were normalized so that the total weighted number of households equals the total number of individuals. Individuals were considered as non-responders at each wave if they had not outmigrated or not died by the period of the survey.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Face-to-face [f2f] - Indepth Interviews
Interviewing teams in the two sites of study comprised of:
- Korogocho: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 2 data quality control officers, 12 interviewers
- Viwandani: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 3 data quality control officers, 17 interviewers
The roles of the various members of the interviewing teams were:
- Interviewer: Conducting face-to-face paper-based interviews in assigned zone within the study site
- Data Quality Control Officer: Performing random spot-checks on 10% of the questionnaires and reporting inconsistencies to the Data Quality Control Team Leader for harmonization
- Data Quality Control Team Leader: Harmonizing inconsistencies within questionnaires and performing a random spot-check on 10% of the 10% questionnaires that have already undergone spot-checking
- Editting Team Leader: Editting 100% of questionnaires from randomly selected field workers and documenting issues emerging during data collection
- Field supervisor: Responsible for overseeing general operations, resolving issues that cannot be harmonized by data quality control and ensuring that field work progressed on schedule. They also
conducted sit-in interviews along with Data Quality Control Team Leader
The Field Co-ordinator, Research Officer and/or Project Managers visited the field and field teams regularly to monitor and review progress and support field operations.
Type of Research Instrument
The study questionnaire included the following sections:
Section 1: Socio-demographic characteristics
Section 2: Parent-child relationships
Section 3: Sibling and other influence (This section was dropped during wave 3)
Section 4: Domestic turbulence and sexual abuse
Section 5: Self-esteem, peer influence, and delinquent behavior (Questions on drug use and depression added in Wave 2)
Section 6: Concerns, aspirations, and expectations or perceived life chances
Section 7: Circumcision
Section 8: Marriage and dating
Section 9: Sexual behavior, contraceptive use, childbearing, and childbearing aspirations
Section 10: HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and HIV testing
Section 11: Attitudes towards sex and contraceptive use (Attitudes to condom use added in Wave 2)
Section 12: Civic participation
In addition, we administered a life history calendar to capture transitions in schooling, independent housing, marital status, sexual intercourse, pregnancy, and income generation. This calendar was administered during the course of the interview. The questionnaire also included a page for field staff to record observations about the interview.
The qualitative interview guide included questions on the following topics:
1. Views about Adulthood
2. Parents and growing up in the family
3. Education, Aspirations and Plans
4. Leisure time and work
5. Family life Living situation and Marriage
6. Romantic relationships and first sex
8. Other Challenges including post election violence
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) During data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
e) Structural checking of SPSS data files
Detailed documentation of the editing of data can be found in the "Standard Procedures Manual" document provided as an external resource.
Some corrections are made automatically by the program (80%) and the rest by visual control of the questionnaire (20%).
Where changes are made by the program, a cold deck imputation is preferred; where incorrect values are imputed using existing data from another dataset. If cold deck is found to be insufficient, hot deck imputation is used. In this case, a missing value is imputed from a randomly selected similar record in the same dataset.
Data entry was performed manually at APHRC's headquarters on desktop computers and was done using an in-house built system with a Visual Basic.Net front-end and a Microsoft SQL Server back-end. Double data entry was carried out on 10% of the questionnaires.
Data were processed in clusters, with each cluster being processed as a complete unit through each stage of data processing. Each cluster goes through the following steps:
1) Questionnaire reception
2) Office editing and coding
3) Data entry
4) Structure and completeness checking
5) Verification entry
6) Comparison of verification data
7) Back up of raw data
8) Secondary editing
9) Edited data back up
After all clusters are processed, all data is concatenated together and then the following steps are completed for all data files:
10) Export to STATA 10 in 2 files (migration & employment history, migration & employment calendar)
11) Recoding of variables needed for analysis
13) Structural checking of STATA 10 files
14) Data quality tabulations
15) Production of analysis tabulations
Details of each of these steps can be found in the Standard Procedures Manual.
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African Population and Health Research Center, Urbanization, Poverty and Health Dynamics - Transition To Adulthood, March 2011. APHRC, Nairobi - Kenya. doi:11239/176-2007-013-1.1
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