Type of Research Instrument
Five survey questionnaires were administered at household level:
(i). An individual schooling history questionnaire was administered to individuals aged 5 - 20. The questionnaire was directly administered to individuals aged 12 - 20 and administered to a proxy for children younger than 12 years. Ideally, the proxy was the child's parent or guardian, or an adult familiar with the individual's schooling history and who usually resides in the same household. The questionnaire had two main sections: school participation for the current year (year of interview), and school participation for the five years preceding the year of interview (i.e. 2007 to 2011). The section on schooling participation on the current year collected information on the schooling status of the individual, the type, name and location of the school that the individual was attending, grade, and whether the individual had changed schools or dropped out of school in the current year. Respondents also provided information on the reasons for changing schools and dropping out of school, where applicable. The section on school participation for previous years also collected similar information. The questionnaire also collected information on the individual's year of birth and when they joined grade one.
(ii). A household schedule questionnaire was administered to the household head or the spouse. It sought information on the members of the household, their relationship to the household head, their gender, age, education and parental survivorship.
(iii). A parental/guardian perception questionnaire was administered to the household head or the parent/guardian of the child. It collected information on the parents/guardians' perceptions on Free Primary Education since its implementation, household support to school where child(ren) attends and household schooling decision.
(iv). A parental/guardian involvement questionnaire was strictly administered to a parent or guardian who usually lives in the household and who was equipped with adequate knowledge of the individual's schooling information (i.e. credible respondent). The questionnaire was completed for each individual of the targeted age bracket (5-20 years). The information on the child comprised questions on the gender of the child, parental/guardian aspirations for the child's educational attainment, and parental beliefs about the child's ability in school and their chances of achieving the aspired level.
(v). A household amenities and livelihood questionnaire was administered to the household head or the spouse or a member of the household who could give reliable information. The questionnaire collected information on duration of stay in the area, household possessions, access to basic amenities, and shocks experienced by the household.
Seven instruments were administered at school level:
(i). A primary school institutional questionnaire was administered to the head teacher (or deputy). The questionnaire collected information on school infrastructure, availability of teaching resources, staffing (number, qualification, absenteeism, and recruitment), school charges, students' enrollment and absenteeism, school ownership and management.
(ii). A Math/English teacher questionnaire was administered to grades 3 and 6 Math and English teachers. The questionnaire collected data on teachers' demographic characteristics, level of education, pre- and in-service trainings, years of experience in teaching the subject, supervision by curriculum advisor/school inspector, workload, support from head teacher/deputy head teacher, interactions with parents, and availability of teaching materials and teaching practices.
(iii). A student background characteristics questionnaire was administered to grade 6 pupils. This tool gathered information on pupils' socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, parents' level of education, household socio-economic status), school homework, language spoken outside school, pupil and teacher absenteeism, and schooling history.
(iv). A classroom observation checklist was completed during classroom observations. This checklist collected information on pre-lesson preparation by Math and English teachers; number of pupils present and absent during the date of interview; availability of visual aids, teaching materials in the classroom; and classroom environment such as sufficient writing space, light, ventilation, and students seating arrangement.
(v). A grade 3 and 6 numeracy tool was used to assess grades 3 and 6 pupils' Mathematics ability.
(vi). A grade 3 and 6 literacy tool was used to assess grades 3 and 6 pupils' literacy skills.
(vii). A Math teacher knowledge assessment tool was administered to grades 3 and 6 Math teachers to assess teachers' pedagogical knowledge in Mathematics.
In addition to the quantitative survey, we collected qualitative data by conducting three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) at school level in each study site. This comprised one FGD with mixed teachers drawn from government and non-government schools, and two others with grade 3 and 6 pupils' parents in both government and non-government schools separately.