Understanding the Dynamics of Access, Transition and Quality of Education in Nairobi (ERP I and II)
This was a prospective population based study comparing education outcomes and education services among slum and non-slum settlements in Nairobi. The study was being conducted in two slum settlements of Korogocho and Viwandani, and two non-slum settlements of Jericho and Harambee. Korogocho is situated within Korogocho administrative location, Viwandani in Viwandani administrative location, and Jericho and Harambee in Makadara administrative location. The study identified households who had children aged between 5 and 19 years old and living within the boundaries of the study sites. The households were followed untl 2010. New households fitting the inclusion criteria were enrolled each year, while the upper age limit increased by a single year for each additional year. By 2010, the study wa following about 16400 individuals aged bewteen 5 and 24 years. The study targetted also schools where the idenfied pupils attended. Several questionnaires were administered and included schooling history to capture schooling information for the current schooling years and 5 years backwards. Afterwards, an update questionnaire was introduced to capture prospective schooling information. The second questionnaire captured information from the parents on their perceptions towards free primary education and support for their children schooling. In addition, individuals who were 12 years and above responded to a behvaior questionnaires. In the schools, a school characteristics questionniare was administred.
The objectives of the ERP I were:
· What is the impact of free primary education on school enrolment patterns and dropout rates among urban slum and non-slum children?
· What factors are associated with school participation (enrolment, attendance, repetition, performance and dropout) among urban slum and non-slum children?
· What are the (causal) linkages between school participation and the onset and extent of indulgence in risky behaviors in children?
Version 1.2, November 2014. Anonymized, with DOI and Recommended Citation added.
Free Primary Education
Universal Primary Education
Low cost schools
Two slums of Nairobi (Korogocho and Viwandani) and two non-slums of Nairobi (Harambee and Jericho)
Unit of Analysis
2. INDIVIDUALS WITHIN THE AGE OF STUDY. AVERAGE OF 2.7 INDIVIDIDUALS PER HOUSEHOLD
The data covers individuals aged 5 and 19 years in 2005 who were by 2010 aged between 5 and 24 years. It also covered primary schools within Nairobi, where majority of the pupils were reported to be enrolled.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
African Population and Health Research Center
Dr. Alex Ezeh
African Population and Health Research Center
Dr. Moses Oketch
African Population and Health Research Center
Dr. Moses Ngware
African Population and Health Research Center
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
The community and respondents
Data entry clerks
Researchers at APHRC
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Selection of study sites
Using the Kenya 1999 housing and population census, and the 1997 Welfare Monitoring Survey III collected by the Central Bureau of Statistics (Government of Kenya 2000), all the 49 locations of Nairobi were ranked into five groups according to the percentage of the population below the poverty line. NUHDSS slum locations of both Viwandani and Korogocho were in the poorest percentile (ranked 48th and 44th, respectively). Those in the richest quintile were excluded because most children in the wealthy communities go to formal private schools which are scattered all over the city. The majority of the locations in the 4th quintile have a mixture of formal and informal settlement features. In order to have a formal residential area in the middle income category where most children are likely to go to public schools, three locations were explored in the second quintile (i.e. the second richest set of locations). During discussion of the project's design, participants, who were mainly Kenyans with comprehensive knowledge of the areas, recommended carrying out the study in Bahati, as opposed to Umoja or Kariokor, the other locations in the second quintile. APHRC researchers visited the three communities to assess their suitability as a comparison site for the project. Bahati (Harambee and Jericho) was chosen because it is relatively stable, is mostly inhabited by middle-income parents with school-going children who mostly go to public schools in the area. In Bahati, 26% of the population lived below the poverty line while in Korogocho and Viwandani, the corresponding percentages were 60% and 76%, respectively. Having Bahati as the comparison area was therefore to enable the study to assess factors affecting schooling among some relatively poor households that did not reside in slum settlements.
Sampling of households
All households included in the NUHDSS database and with individuals aged between 5 and 19 years in 2005 were included in the study. thereafter they were followed until 2010. In between those who entered into the system or reach the aged of 5 years were also included and followed prospectively.
Sampling of schools
Schools were the pupils under serveillance were reported to be enrolled formed part of the sampling frame for schools. The inclusion criteria for the schools survey was that the school should be located within Nairobi and that it should have a minimum of five pupils in oyr household survey enrolled in it.
The population varied on the data collection and the years of data collection. In general, by 2012, the study was following upto 20,000 indiiduals from about 11,000 households and 210 schools
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
R1 - Update round
R2 - Korogocho and Viwandani
R2 - Harambee and Jericho
R3 - Harambee and Jericho
R3 - Viwandani and Korogocho
Mode of data collection
Face-to-face [f2f]; FGD
The logistics on the group involved putting the field team into teams, headed by a team leader. Each site also had an overall supervisor. Several measures were taken to ensure that quality data were collected during the period. First, team members in various study sites held daily meetings to discuss issues related to fieldwork. Second, team leaders went through all the questionnaires checking for errors including inconsistencies. If a team leader found inconsistent information while editing, he/she had to go back to the same household to confirm the information with the person who responded to the questionnaire. All team members edited their work daily before submitting to their respective team leaders. Third, team leaders also accompanied different teams to observe data collection. They also had sit-ins with household FIs and conducted random spot-checks in some households to ensure quality. Finally, the core research team also visited every study site and conducted random household spot checks. Following these visits, the core research team held meetings with the teams and communicated issues and challenges that they came across and brainstormed on ways to improve the quality of data collection. In general, close and intensive supervision by team leaders and researchers ensured that the survey was conducted in a professional way and that quality data was collected.
Type of Research Instrument
The questionnaires hereafter are referred to as modules. There are several modules since the beginning of the education project:
The household module served as a starting point of the interview. It identified the respondent's household. The module was administered to the owner of the household or any other adult who was credible and who usually lives in the household. It served to identify individual households and its occupants and thus served as a basis for the other modules to be administered. It contains a complete list of the household members and some basic information on age, sex, parental survivorship, education, and labor force participation.
For each of the household, information on water source and trash disposal methods, type of toilet facility used by the household, materials for the house (roof, floor, and walls), fuel for lighting and cooking, and ownership of assets was collected.
The Primary schools module:
This module serves to generate indicators on schooling participation. The module is meant for headmasters or teachers knowledgeable enough to provide information on the school. It comprises of the following sections:
This serves to identify the name of the school, the date and time of the interview and the location of the school.
Particulars of respondent
This section of the module collected information on the respondent and establishes the respondent's full names, position held by respondent in the school and how long the respondent has been working in the school.
This section sets to establish whether the school is registered, if registered under which ministry the school is registered(ministry of culture or ministry of education), its registration number, the type of curriculum followed by the school and the management of the school. The understanding is that the name of the school being used maybe different from the one under which the school is registered. The information is important especially if we are to link the school to the Ministry of Education or Ministry of Culture records. This information will most probably be obtained from the school records (if they exist).
This section sets to collect information on the school facilities, such as textbooks provided by the school to the pupils in each grade they include Mathematics, Science ,Kiswahili and English, a library, science lab for pupils use ,a playground for outdoor sports pupils use and inventory of all school's equipment e.g. desks. For purposes of this project, a library is considered to be a room which has reference books where pupils can go to read.
This section also offers information on the school ownership of a toilet facility for use by the pupils and whether there are separate toilets provided for boys and girls. It also offers information on the school's water source and the availability of electricity in the school.
In addition the module in this section probes the respondent on whether the inspector of schools has visited the school in the current schooling year and requests for the date and year of visit. The inspector of school is from the City Council education department or from the Ministry of Education.
Enrollment for the current school year
Enrollment refers to children who are current registered for specific grades/classes in the school.
The objective of this section is to provide information on the number of boys and girls in each of the streams in the school in the current school year. It also sets to establish whether there were any pupils who were turned away during enrollment in the current year and the approximate number of pupils who were turned away from enrolling in the school.
Expenditure on schooling
The module here asks questions on the school fee structure, it seeks to establish whether the pupils are required to pay fees and how much (Kenya shillings) they pay for the following: tuition, construction fund, Parents Teachers Association (PTA), extra classes, examination fees, school meals and other items.
This was required to be filled for all grades in the school and whether paid annually, termly, monthly and weekly.
It also provides information on whether the pupils are required to wear uniform in order to be allowed in class and the source of purchase of the uniform.
The module records the Kenya examination results from 2000 to 2004 and the total marks obtained by all the pupils who participated in the national examinations in the school.
School staffing section required that information about all the employees who work in the school be completed. This section listed full names, age, sex, position held by the staff, how long they have been working in the school and their professional qualification. It further listed the number of lessons each teacher instructs per week.
This section offers information on the school's building infrastructure. In order to obtain a comprehensive outline of the infrastructure, all the buildings were measured (length, width) in meters. In addition it records use of the building and the general condition of the room.
Parent guardian module:
The parent guardian module is part of a set of modules designed to generate indicators on schooling participation and its determinants that are sensitive to urban slums. The module is meant for parents who have children that are between the ages of 5 to 19 years old. One module is completed for each parent or guardian who resides in the household. It contains the following sections:
Particulars of the respondent
It sets to collect information on the respondent's full names, age and sex.
General questions on education
The module probes the respondent's familiarity on the schools that are nearby to his/her household both primary and secondary schools. It queries the respondent further on the distance from their household to the school and the amount of time that it would take for them to walk to the school.
In addition the module in this section surveys the knowledge of the respondent about free primary education. It further asserts to realize the respondents opinion on the achievements of free primary education in government schools since its inception. It probes on the performance of pupils, teachers, and the availability of textbooks and other stationary for pupils use in government schools.
It also touches on the parent's participation on the events that take place in the schools which their children attend and inquires on who makes decisions on the schooling affairs of the children. The options here were it the mother, father, both parents equally, guardian, child himself /herself or someone else.
To obtain an in depth overview of how a parent is involved in a child's life, the parent involvement section collect s information on every child in the household aged 5-19 independently .This section surveys the parents knowledge of each child's day t o day activities both at home and in school. This section has provision for the child's name and line number.
Education child module (Child Behavior):
This module is part of a set of modules designed to generate indicators on schooling participation, expenses incurred for purposes of schooling and the overall child behavior. The module is meant for children aged 5-19 years irrespective of whether they are in school or not and this module was completed for each child. For children aged 12-19 years, emphases were made to interview the child himself /herself.
This module contains the following sections:
Details of the last complete school year:
The module gathers information on the expenses associated with schooling of the child. It records the source of the money to pay for the expenses and how the expenses were incurred. This section would not be filled if the child was not in school.
In subsequent round (Round 2), this section was moved to the parental involvement to the parent guardian questionnaire.
Children currently in school
This section of the module offers information on school going children, where it collects information on the schooling activities of the child such as how homework is issued, how much homework is issued by teachers in different lessons and if the child does his /her homework. It also sets to identify if the dietary plan of the household caters for the child. i.e. if the child gets meals before going to school and when in school.
Formal training and apprenticeship
The formal training and apprenticeship section of the education child module was administered to every child in the household aged 12-19 years old, regardless of whether they were in school or not. The apprenticeship and training sets to establish whether the child had received any kind of informal training in a trade or skill. This may have been acquired through full-time apprenticeship with a skilled person or through an informal relationship with a skilled person. In addition it probes for type of skills acquired by the child e.g. pottery, cookery, carpentry etc, and the duration of the training and whether the child earned any money from using the skill.
This section was filled for children aged 12-19 years. It emphasized on confidentiality on the information gathered form the respondent. This was a comprehensive section of the module which probed the respondent on his/her perception of the school that they attend, their parents or guardians knowledge on the child's activities in and out of school, overall knowledge of their friends behavior in and out of school, it also contains an elaborate section for females reproductive health and most comprehensively on drugs and substance use.
On drugs and substance use the section probed the respondent on whether they had ever taken drugs, smoked a cigarette, taken alcohol or even taken any substance and whether they were taken in and out of the school premises.
Child update module:
The child update module is set to collect information on the children aged 5-19 years. The questionnaire was to be completed for all children in the household in this age group. The questionnaire collected information on school enrollment and schooling history of the child regardless of whether they were in school at that moment or not. For children aged 5,6,7,8 and 9 in the year 2005 the only information completed for this module was only for one, two, three, four and five respectively. This is because the module was set to collect information for the child's history form the year 2000-2005.
During the subsequent years, retrospective schooling information was collected 5 years before the current interview year, i.e. in 2006 retrospective schooling information was collected for the years 2001 to 2005, and 2002 to 2006 for the year 2007. During these other years, the questionnaire was/is only administered to new individuals into the study area or children who reach the age of five years and above. Similarly, following the DSS concepts, a child who out-migrates and the later in-migrates, the questionnaire is administered to him/her in order to bridge the schooling information for the duration the child was away.
It was thus divided into the following sections:
School participation for current year
The first section of the module sets to establish the current schooling status of the child, where it records the name of the school the child is attending, grade, location of the school and whether the child has changed or dropped out of school in the current year. It also probed on the reasons for changing schools and dropping school by the child.
School participation for previous years
This section of the module collected information on the child's schooling history from the year 2000-2005 if the interview year is 2005. As mentioned earlier this section would observe that children aged 5,6,7,8 and 9 in 2005 the schooling history completed would be for one, two, three, four and five respectively, thus children aged above these ages, information would be completed for all years from 2000-2005.
Education child update (round 2)
This module was administered in the second and subsequent rounds of the education research. The education update module is designed for each individual for whom education information (Education update module) was collected in the initial census or during subsequent years of the education research. This information was collected from children aged 5-19 years. Therefore, the questions target individual responses from children in our initial survey of this age and seek to confirm their previous and current schooling status. This module will assist us to know:
i. If the child is still in school
ii. Who dropped out of school and the reasons for dropping out
iii. Who changed school and reasons why they changed schools
If the child is aged 12-19, then efforts were made to speak with him/her and if the child is aged 5-11, the respondent was ideally an adult (parent, guardian) who usually lives in the household.
One weakness, of the child education update (1,2,& 3) is that one cannot monitor class progression in that, it does not collect class and level information for all individuals. It only collects such data for individuals who have changed school. However, in the fourth and final education update done this year 2007, such questions have been added and will be used to fix class and level for individuals for the years that it was not collected.
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) During data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
Data entry was performed manually at APHRC's headquarters on desktop computers and was done using an in-house built system with a Microsoft Visual Basic and MS SQL softwares.
Head, Statistics and Surveys Unit
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African population and Health Research center, Understanding the Dynamics of Access, Transition and Quality of Education in Nairobi (ERP I and II), December 2010. APHRC, Nairobi. doi:11239/176-2005-021-1.2
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