NUHDSS - Verbal Autopsy, Causes of deaths 2002-2015
Causes of deaths 2002-2015
The Verbal Autopsy Form is one of the forms administered in the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. It was introduced in the first round in 2002 and is ongoing. It is designed to establish probable cause of death using methodologies developed through the International Network of field sites with continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH Network). Information on circumstances and/or events surrounding deaths among all deceased within the NUHDSS are collected every 4 months. The data contain both symptom level data as the well as the actual cause of death codes. APHRC employs physicians to independently review the symptom level data contained in the completed verbal autopsy forms and generate probable cause of death codes from an abridged ICD-10 list.
v1.0: Edited, Anonymized Dataset. It contains interviews up to 2nd December, 2010 and physician-coded causes of death up to 31st December, 2008.
v1.1: Edited, Anonymized Dataset. It contains interviews up to 2nd December, 2010 and physician-coded causes of death up to 31st December, 2008. It incorporates the Researchers' Comments.
v1.2: Edited, anonymous dataset with data-sharing links moved from Technical Documents to Access Policy
Version 1.3 (November 2014), Anonymized with DOI and Recommended Citation added.
Version 1.4 (March 2015): Anonymized with DOI and Recommended Citation added. Data up to December 2012 (R1 to R33) are included. This dataset contains additional variables pertaining to both physician and InterVA-4 cause of death.
Version 1.5 (October 2015): It contains datasets from 2002 to 2015.
Causes of Death
Two informal settlements (slums) in Nairobi county, Kenya (specifically, Korogocho and Viwandani slums).
Unit of Analysis
The unit of analysis is the deceased individual
All NUHDSS residents that are deceased.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
African Population and Health Research Center
Rockefeller Foundation (USA)
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (USA)
Comic Relief (UK)
Swedish International Development Cooperation
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (USA)
Residents of Korogocho and Viwandani Slums
Community leaders - chiefs and village elders
Support to field teams
The routine verbal autopsy questionnaires collect information on all deceased who were de jure household members (usual residents) in the geographic coverage area.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Round 2, Round 3 and Round 4
Round 5, Round 6 and Round 7
Round 8, Round 9 and Round 10
Round 11, Round 12 and Round 13
Round 14, Round 15 and Round 16
Round 17 and Round 18
Round 19, Round 20 and Round 21
Round 22, Round 23 and Round 24
Round 25, Round 26 and Round 27
Round 28, Round 29 and Round 30
Round 31 and Round 32
Round 33, Round 34 and Round 35
Round 37 and Round 38
Round 39, Round 40 and Round 41
Mode of data collection
Interviewing teams in the two sites of study comprised of:
- Korogocho: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 1 deaths' monitoring team leader, 2 data quality control officers, 12 interviewers
- Viwandani: 1 field supervisor, 2 editting team leaders, 1 data quality control team leader, 1 deaths' monitoring team leader, 3 data quality control officers, 17 interviewers
The roles of the various members of the interviewing teams were:
- Interviewer: Conducting face-to-face paper-based interviews(Round 0- Round 38) and using Netbooks (Round 39 onwards) in assigned zone within the study site
- Data Quality Control Officer: Performing random spot-checks on 10% of the questionnaires and reporting inconsistencies to the Data Quality Control Team Leader for harmonization
- Deaths' Monitoring Team Leader: Ensuring that Verbal Autopsies are administered once deaths are registered and linking with key informants in the study site (e.g. village elders) to procure information on deaths within the study community
- Data Quality Control Team Leader: Harmonizing inconsistencies within questionnaires and performing a random spot-check on 10% of the 10% questionnaires that have already undergone spot-checking
- Editting Team Leader: Editting 100% of questionnaires from randomly selected field workers and documenting issues emerging during data collection
- Field supervisor: Responsible for overseeing general operations, resolving issues that cannot be harmonized by data quality control and ensuring that field work progressed on schedule. They also conducted sit-in interviews along with Data Quality Control Team Leader
The Field Co-ordinator, Research Officer and/or Project Managers visited the field and field teams regularly to monitor and review progress and support field operations.
Type of Research Instrument
1. Rounds 1 - 7: The questionnaire used was one structured questionnaire, Verbal Autopsy Form. It included: Background Information, Respondent Particulars, Office/Field Check Details, Open History, Neonatal, Post-Neonatal, and Under-12 Deaths, Adolescent/Adult Deaths, Treatment and Records
2. Rounds 8+: There were two questionnaires that were used. Verbal Autopsy Form for People 5 Years and Older, which included: Background Information, Respondent Particulars, Open History, All Deaths, Pregnancy Related Deaths, Treatment and Records, Office/Field Check Details. Verbal Autopsy Form for Children Under-Five Years, which included: Background Information, Respondent Particulars, Open History, Birth and Death Circumstances for all Deaths Under 1 Year, Deaths at Age Less than 28 Days Old, and Deaths at Age Between 28 days and 5 Years, Treatment and Records, Office/Field Check Details.
All questionnaires are provided as external resources.
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
1. Quality control through back-checks on 10 percent of completed questionnaires and editing of all completed questionnaires by supervisors and project management staff.
2. A quality control officer performed internal consistency checks for all questionnaires and edited all paper questionnaires coming from the field before their submission for data entry with return of incorrectly filled questionnaires to the field for error-resolution.
3. During data entry, any questionnaires that were found to be inconsistent were returned to the field for resolution.
4. Data cleaning and editting was carried out using STATA Version 13 software.
Detailed documentation of the editing of data can be found in the "Standard Procedures Manual" document provided as an external resource.
Some corrections are made automatically by the program (80%) and the rest by visual control of the questionnaire (20%).
Where changes are made by the program, a cold deck imputation is preferred; where incorrect values are imputed using existing data from another dataset. If cold deck is found to be insufficient, hot deck imputation is used. In this case, a missing value is imputed from a randomly selected similar record in the same dataset.
Data were entered as follows:
1. Typed based on paper questionnaires at APHRC's headquarters on desktop computers. Double data entry was carried out on 10% of the questionnaires (Round 0- Round 38).
2. Using Netbooks (Round 39 onwards).
In both cases, data were captured using in-house software developed with a Visual Basic. Net front-end and a Microsoft Structured Query Language (SQL) Server back-end.
Head, Data and Measurement Unit
All non-APHRC staff seeking to use data generated at the Center must obtain written approval to use the data from the Director of Research. This form is developed to assess applications for data use and facilitate responsible sharing of data with external partners/collaborators/researchers. By entering into this agreement, the undersigned agrees to use these data only for the purpose for which they were obtained and to abide by the conditions outlined below:
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4. Confidentiality pledge: The user will not use nor permit others to use the data to report any information in the data sets that could identify, directly or by inference, individuals or households.
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6. Publications resulting from APHRC data: The Center requires external collaborators to work with APHRC staff on all publications resulting from its data. In order to facilitate this, lead authors should send a detailed concept note of the paper (including the background, rationale, data, analytical methods, and preliminary findings) to the Principle Investigator (or Theme Leader) for the project (with a copy to the Director of Research), who will circulate the abstract to concerned researchers for possible expression of interest in participating in the publication as co-authors. Any exception to the involvement of APHRC staff should be approved by the Director of Research, APHRC.
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9. Acknowledgement: Any work/reports from this data must acknowledge APHRC as the source of these data. For example, the suggested acknowledgement for NUHDSS data is:
"This research uses livelihoods data collected under the longitudinal Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) since 2006. The NUHDSS is carried out by the African Population and Health Research Center in two slums settlements (Korogocho and Viwandani) in Nairobi City."
Additionally all funders, the study communities that provided the data, and staff who collected and analyzed or processed the data should be acknowledged.
10. Deposit of Reports/Papers: The user should submit electronic and paper copies of all publications generated using APHRC data to the Policy Engagement and Communications Department, with copies to the Director of Research.
11. Change of contact details: The user will promptly inform the Director of Research of any change in your personal details as contained on this data request form.
African Population and Health Research Center, Cause of Death Table, 2015. APHRC-NUHDSS, Nairobi - Kenya. doi:10.20369/aphrc-013:2002.2.01
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The user of the data acknowledges that APHRC and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.