Assessing the Implementation of Sexuality Education Policies and Curricula in Kenya
Making comprehensive sexuality education available for young people is essential for ensuring their sexual and reproductive health and rights. This is particularly essential in low and middle income countries (LMICs) like Kenya where the levels of unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual violence among the youth are high. Various initiatives have been taken in Kenya to implement and
strengthen sexuality education in the national curriculum, but the situation of teaching sexuality education in schools is poorly understood and faced with a lot of controversies. Previous research indicates that various constraints such as restrictions on what topics can be covered, heavy teaching loads, teachers’ inadequate training, lack of community support, and limited funding impede proper implementation.
These study covered Nairobi, Mombasa and Homa Bay counties.
Unit of Analysis
Students,teachers in schools
1. All principals of sampled schools
2. Teachers who teach topics related to sexuality education
3. Students in forms 2 and 3
4. Key informants involved in sexuality education policymaking or implementation at national and local levels as well as leaders of community organizations in the counties where the study was implemented.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
African Population and Health Research Center
Chimaraoke O. Izugbara
Estelle M. Sidze
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Key informant interviews:
We aimed to interview around 25 key informants who were identified through consultation with a wide range of stakeholders involved in policy-making, program implementation, or advocacy around sexuality education. These key informants included Ministry of Education (MoE) and Ministry of Health staff involved in HIV or sexuality education programs, and international agencies and
NGOs involved in its implementation, both at the central level as well as at the local (county, sub-county or community) level. We also sought out groups advocating for or opposing the provision of sexuality education in schools, both at the national and local level in the counties where we are working. Finally, we will include leaders of community organizations such as youth associations, parent-teacher associations, women’s groups, and religious groups, as well as community leaders where appropriate.
Survey of principals, teachers and students:
We selected around 80 schools: 27 in Nairobi County, 27 in Mombasa County, and 26 in Homabay County. This was based on a minimum required sample of 2500 students, and a low-end estimate of the average number of eligible students per school around 30. To sample schools, we first purposively selected Nairobi, Mombasa and Homabay counties, which represent a geographically and ethnically diverse range of areas (urban, rural, different ethnic groups). Within these regions, we drew a list of all secondary schools stratified by type, for example public/private ownership, mixed schools versus girls/boys schools, religious affiliation. This was to ensure that we surveyed the full range of secondary schools in the country, since the provision of sexuality education will likely vary between the different types of schools. We directly drew a stratified random sample of schools.
Selection of teachers and principals: All principals from selected schools were interviewed. Teachers were selected based on their involvement in teaching any topic related to sexuality education. Since in Kenya, sexuality education is integrated into other subjects instead of, being offered as a standalone subject, the survey interviewed teachers from a variety of different subjects. Teachers who teach sexuality
education were identified through consultation with the school principal. We aimed at interviewing only one teacher per school.
Selection of students: In each school, we drew a random sample of 30 students, 15 students from each class, using the form 1 and 2 class registers. Forms 1 and 2 were selected because students in these classes are likely to be at a pivotal age (13-16years) in adolescence when information on sexual and reproductive health can enable them make sexually healthy decisions before the onset of sexual activity. In
mixed schools (both boys and girls), we drew a random sample of 8 girls and 8 boys. This yielded 32 students in mixed schools and 30 students in single-gender schools. We used a random number table to select students whose numbers were identified according to their current class register serial number.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Nearly all selected key informants participated in the study. Two were replaced by other respondents in the same organization because of availability at the time of the scheduled interview. A total of 78 schools were sampled, and survey response rates were relatively high for all types of respondents.
Sample weights were calculated for the student, teacher and principal data files.
Sample weights were computed as the inverse of the probability of selection of the school and students.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Interviewing was conducted by teams of interviewers. Each interviewing team comprised of 6 interviewers and a field supervisor.
The role of the supervisor was to coordinate field data collection activities, including management of the field teams, supplies and equipment, finances, coordinate with local authorities concerning the survey plan and make arrangements for accommodation and travel. Additionally, the field supervisor assigned the work to the interviewers, spot checked work, maintained field control documents, and sent completed questionnaires and progress reports to the head office.
Type of Research Instrument
They included the;
The questionnaire for principals covered how the program is organized at the local and school level, how sexuality education is taught in their school, the curriculum and any restrictions, and provision for teacher training.
The questionnaire for teachers asked for their experience and opinions on the program in their school, including its organization, teaching methods, curriculum, their perceptions of support and opposition from students and the wider community regarding the program in general as well as particular topics; their opinions on the training they received, as well a few questions relating to their attitudes to sexuality, sexual and reproductive health and rights, as this will influence how and what students learn in their classes.
The questionnaire for students covered topics around their exposure to sexuality education in school, their experience with sexuality education outside of the school program, their general opinions, level of support or opposition to sexuality education in school, as well as outcome measures to assess their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors relating to sexuality and sexual and reproductive health and rights.
There was also a school characteristic form that was used to collect informtion on;
- Total number of students in a school
- Number of streams for forms 2 & 3
- Number of students enrolled in forms 2 & 3
- Teachers teaching reproductive health topics
- Adequate time to conduct the interview
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
a) Office editing
b) During data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
1. A quality control officer performed internal consistency checks for all questionnaires and edited all paper questionnaires coming from the field before their submission for data entry with return of incorrectly filled questionnaires to the field for error-resolution.
2. Data cleaning and editting was carried out using STATA Version 13 software.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Director of Research
All non-APHRC staff seeking to use data generated at the Center must obtain written approval to use the data from the Director of Research. This form is developed to assess applications for data use and facilitate responsible sharing of data with external partners/collaborators/researchers. By entering into this agreement, the undersigned agrees to use these data only for the purpose for which they were obtained and to abide by the conditions outlined below:
1. Data Ownership: The data remain the property of APHRC; any unauthorized reproduction and sharing of the data is strictly prohibited. The user will, therefore, not release nor permit others to use or release the data to any other person without the written authorization from the Center.
2. Purpose: The provided data must be used for the purpose specified in the Data Request Form; any other use not specified in the form must receive additional or separate authorization.
3. Respondent Identifiers: The Center is committed to protecting the identity of the respondents who provide information in its research. All analytical data sets (both qualitative and quantitative) released by the Data Unit MUST are stripped of respondent identifiers to protect the identity of the respondents. By accepting to use APHRC data, the user is pledging that he/she will not, under any circumstance, regenerate the identifiers or permit others to use the data to learn the identity of any individual, household or community included in any data set.
4. Confidentiality pledge: The user will not use nor permit others to use the data to report any information in the data sets that could identify, directly or by inference, individuals or households.
5. Reporting of errors or inconsistencies: The user will promptly notify the Head of the Statistics and Survey Unit any errors discovered in the data as soon as the errors are discovered.
6. Publications resulting from APHRC data: The Center requires external collaborators to work with APHRC staff on all publications resulting from its data. In order to facilitate this, lead authors should send a detailed concept note of the paper (including the background, rationale, data, analytical methods, and preliminary findings) to the Principle Investigator (or Theme Leader) for the project (with a copy to the Director of Research), who will circulate the abstract to concerned researchers for possible expression of interest in participating in the publication as co-authors. Any exception to the involvement of APHRC staff should be approved by the Director of Research, APHRC.
7. Security: The user will take responsibility for the security of the data by ensuring that the data are used and stored in a secure environment where access is password protected. This will ensure that non-authorized people should not have access to the data.
8. Loss of privilege to use data: In the event that APHRC determines that the data user is in violation of the conditions for using the data, or if the user wishes to cancel this agreement, the user will destroy the data files provided to him/her. APHRC retains the right to revoke this agreement or informs publishers to withhold publication of any work based wholly or in part on its data if the conditions for using the data are violated.
9. Acknowledgement: Any work/reports from this data must acknowledge APHRC as the source of these data. For example, the suggested acknowledgement for NUHDSS data is:
"This research uses livelihoods data collected under the longitudinal Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) since 2006. The NUHDSS is carried out by the African Population and Health Research Center in two slums settlements (Korogocho and Viwandani) in Nairobi City."
Additionally all funders, the study communities that provided the data, and staff who collected and analyzed or processed the data should be acknowledged.
10. Deposit of Reports/Papers: The user should submit electronic and paper copies of all publications generated using APHRC data to the Policy Engagement and Communications Department, with copies to the Director of Research.
11. Change of contact details: The user will promptly inform the Director of Research of any change in your personal details as contained on this data request form.
African Population and Health Research Center, Assessing the Implementation of Sexuality Education Policies and Curricula in Kenya, 2018. Nairobi - Kenya. doi:10.20369/aphrc-049:2018.1.1
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that APHRC and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.