Understanding resilience in later life in a low resource setting
Estimates indicate that close to 60% of the urban population in Kenya live in slums and informal settlements. Further, a growing number of migrants are ageing 'in situ', resulting in an increasing number of older people living in slum areas Ageing in these setting can be challenging particularly given the lack of formal support systems. Given this context, this study seeks to better understand resilience among older people in coping with stresses and shocks, and how some are able to adapt, and to emerge with better health and socio-economic outcomes relative to other older people living in the same environment and exposed to the same conditions. A mixed-methods approach that combines secondary analysis of qualitative and quantitatve data was used to compare individuals' exposure to shocks and make causal inferences on factors associated with resilience. For the quantitative arm, longitudinal data from the Nairobi Urban Heath Demographic and Surveillance System (NUHDSS) were used. The data were collected between 2006 and 2009 in two slums of Nairobi (Korogocho and Viwandani) on an APHRC research program titled 'Urbanization, Poverty and Health Dynamics (UPHD). The qualitative arm involved in-depth interviews with a purposive sample drawn from the survey participants. The in-depth interviews seeked to answer how and why individuals emerged as most resilient on the one hand, or the most vulnerable to shocks. The findings highlighted factors which predispose some individuals to be more or less resilient than others. This information is useful for programmes seeking to improve the lives of poor people by enhancing their capabilities and resourcefulness in drawing upon existing capital.
Version 1.0: July 2015. Edited with datasets anonymised.
Two informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani, in Nairobi City (the capital city) of Kenya.
Unit of Analysis
The study will cover persons recruited in the 2009 UPHD and aged 60 years and above.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
African Population and Health Research Center
Isabella Aboderin, PhD.
Economic and Social Research Centre -Department for International Development
Population of Korogocho and Viwandani Slums
Sampling for the qualitative investigation in-depth interviews is purposive.
In total, 16 respondents (N=16) were interviewed with the follwing inclusion criteria:
(i) The inclusion of roughly equal numbers of:
- Korogocho and Viwandani respondents
- Males and females
- One key ethnic group in each location
(ii) The selection within each stratum, of individuals with the following characteristics:
- Caring/not caring for grandchildren or foster children
- With/without impaired function
- Living alone/Living with others
- No experience/experience of a 'shock' in 2009/more recently
- Receiving/not receiving long term care
- Receipt/non-receipt of the older persons cash transfer program (OPCTP)
- With/without alcohol problem
For the quantitative survey, a total of 477 prospective respondents were identified on the basis of information drawn from three sources:
- Latest available round DSS data (November 2014) for information on sex, age, ethnic group, living arrangements, participation in 2009 UPHD
- UPHD 2009 data (for information for 2009 on trajectories to, and nature of functional status, care for grand -or foster children, experience of a shock)
- Community informants (for information on experience of recent shock, current care for grand -or foster children, current functional status and receipt of long term care, current alcohol problem/isolation
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
The project research assistant monitored progress in the field and quality control measures was implemented by the data unit.
Type of Research Instrument
- The screening questionnaire on Understanding Resilience in Later Life in a Low Resource Setting covers demographics, care and support, work history and benefits, older persons cash transfer program, health state descriptions (WHODAS 12 and WHOQoL)functioning assessment, subjective wellbeing and social cultural environment. The questionnaire was administered in Kiswahili to adults aged 60 years and above
Data editing took place at a number of stages throughout the processing, including:
a) Office editing and coding
b) Data entry
c) Structure checking and completeness
d) Secondary editing
Data entry was performed manually at APHRC's headquarters on desktop computers and was done using an in-house built system with a Microsoft Visual Basic and MS SQL softwares.
Data were processed the following steps:
1) Questionnaire reception
2) Office editing and coding
3) Data entry
4) Structure and completeness checking
7) Back up of raw data
8) Export to STATA 10 in files
9) Recoding of variables needed for analysis
10) Structural checking of STATA files
11) Data quality tabulations
12) Production of analysis tabulations
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African Population and Health Research Center, Understanding resilience in later life in a low resource setting, July 2015. APHRC, Nairobi - Kenya. doi:10.20369/aphrc-030:2015.1.01
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